What is AI?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a computer science of great diversity branch dedicated to developing smart machines that can perform tasks that usually involve intelligence for individuals. It is an interdisciplinary field with various approaches, but advances in machine learning and in deep learning are producing a paradigm shift in nearly every field of the tech industry.
History of AI
Artificial intelligence had its origins in the Second World War when the advent of fields such as computing and neuroscience began. One prominent contributor to the Artificial Intelligence field is Alan Turing, a mathematician who helped break German naval codes during the war.
We have to thank him for the’ Turing Test,’ a machine-set bar that can trick someone into believing they’re talking to a human being. However, the word artificial intelligence itself was first coined at a summer conference at Dartmouth University in 1956 by the American computer and cognitive scientist John McCarthy.
In the 1960s, despite a lot of optimism around Artificial Intelligence , enthusiasm plummeted in the 1970s as millions were spent on technology with little tangible return. Awareness picked up again in the 1980s as companies began to focus less on’ general intelligence’ and more on the potential of AI to help solve specific challenges. In 2008, Google released an Artificial Intelligence -powered speech recognition app, and its applications have since become broader and broader as a field.
How is Artificial Intelligence Used?
In general, artificial intelligence comes under two broad Groups:
- Narrow Artificial Intelligence
- Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
This artificial intelligence, which is often referred to as “narrow A Artificial Intelligence I,” works within a limited context, and is a simulation of human knowledge. Narrow AI is often incredibly well focused on performing a single task. While these devices may seem smart, they work under far more restrictions and limitations than even the most basic human intelligence. A few examples of Narrow AI include:
- Google search
- Siri, Alexa and other personal assistants
- Self-driving cars
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI):
AGI, often referred to as “Solid AI,” is the kind of artificial intelligence that we see in the movies, like Westworld robots or Star Trek’s Data: The Next Generation. AGI is a computer with general information and can apply that knowledge to solve any problem, much like a human being.
Real-world examples of Artificial Intelligence
Everywhere you look at Amazon’s recommendation engine, Siri, Cortana and Alexa, from your Gmail account and Google Maps, car parking assistance apps, and Facebook’s facial recognition technology; real-world Artificial Intelligence examples are out there.
Artificial Intelligence is used to assist all manner of day-to-day activities, from interpreting legal contracts to electronic commerce to medical diagnoses. Artificial Intelligence’s cutting-edge technologies include driverless cars, the identification of emotions from the faces of people and automated delivery systems.
Types Of AI
When someone asks you to describe the various types of Artificial Intelligence systems, you need to categorize them based on their functionalities.
AI can be classified into the following types, based on the functionality of AI-based systems:
- Reactive Machines AI
- Limited Memory AI
- Theory of Mind AI
- Self-aware AI
Reactive Machine AI
This form of Artificial Intelligence includes machines which work based on the present data, taking into account the current situation only. To predict their future actions, reactive AI machines cannot draw inferences from the data. We have a narrow range of predefined tasks to perform.
Limited Memory AI
As the name suggests Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence , by analyzing past data from its memory, can make informed and improved decisions. Such an AI has a short or transient memory which can be used to store past experiences and thus determine future actions.
Self-driving cars are Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence , which takes immediate decisions using the data gathered in the recent past. Self-driving cars, for example, use sensors to detect people who cross the road, steep hills, Signals of traffic, and so on for better driving decisions. This will assist in preventing accidents in the future.
Theory of Mind AI
Artificial Intelligence is a more advanced version of the Theory of Mind AI. This group of machines is being hypothesized to play a significant role in psychology. Another form of AI would mainly focus on emotional intelligence, so human values and thoughts can be better understood.
The Mind AI Theory has not yet been fully established, but there is ongoing rigorous research in this area.
Let’s hope we won’t reach the AI era, where computers have their consciousness and become self-conscious. Given the present circumstances, this sort of AI is a little far-fetched. Nevertheless, it may be possible to achieve a level of superintelligence in the future.
Geniuses like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawkings have been actively educating us about Artificial Intelligence’s evolution. In the comment section, let me know your thoughts on this.
AI is a vast field, spanning many domains, such as Machine Learning, Deep Learning, etc. I’ve discussed the various areas of Artificial Intelligence in the section below.
Future of AI
Despite the breakneck pace of recent developments, forecasts of how artificial intelligence will evolve seem dangerous–even foolish–to set too much store by.
Though widely popularized in mass media, forecasts of ‘super-intelligent’ Artificial Intelligence seem unlikely to come true anytime soon.
However, Artificial Intelligence is expected to continue developing and improving work in fields such as automated transportation, ‘cyborg‘ or biohacking technology, virtual assistants, and robotics.
As with all technology, Artificial Intelligence is neutral at its heart, like roads or electricity. It is as it is being applied that any moral judgment can govern. Worryingly, AI is gradually being embraced by military forces around the world, even dubbing this’ new space race’ by several commentators.
The World Economic Forum has suggested, on a more optimistic note, that AI could save the world. Artificial Intelligence could help tackle climate change, one of our biggest challenges.
It’s really up to humanity, and how we want to use it.
As the Artificial Intelligence expert Sir Nigel Shadbolt put it: “It is not artificial intelligence that scares me.
With its groundbreaking features like natural language processing, machine learning, image processing and robotic process automation, Artificial Intelligence Technology can reinvent the businesses.
Read Next. What is big Data.